Rowland Ward Methods Of Measurement
Please feel free to contact Rowland Ward to learn more about the methods of measurement or consider purchasing the informative Rowland Ward Sportsman’s Handbook.
Method 1 
For Deer species with simple, unpalmated antlers: Roe, Heumel, Pampas, Marsh, Muntjac, Tufted, Sika, Axis, Rusa, Hog, Mule, White¬tailed etc Rank on the length of the longest antler.
 Measure the length of each antler on the outside curve of the main beam from the lowest edge of the burr (coronet) to the tip (AB). The tape must not be pressed into the groove above the coronet.
 Measure the circumference of the burr of each antler (C).
 Measure the circumference of the main beam at the smallest place between brow and second tines, or if the brow tine is lacking (as for example in roe deer) between burr and first front (upper in Whitetailed Deer) tine (D).
 Measure the widest inside span of the main beams at right angles to the long axis of the skull (E).
 Count the number of points (tines) 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length (for Roe and Muntjac 3/4 inch or 2 cm).
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 2 
For Red Deer, North American Wapiti, Asian Marals and related species Rank on the length of the longest antler.
 Measure the length of each antler on the outside curve from the lowest edge of the burr (coronet) to the tip of the longest beam of the crown (AB). The tape must not be pressed into the groove above the coronet.
 Measure the circumference of the burr of each antler (C).
 Measure the circumference of each antler at the smallest place between the second and third tines. For those antlers lacking a second tine, this measurement should be made at the smallest point between the brow (first) and third tine (D).
 Measure the widest inside span of the antler beams at right angles to the long axis of the skull (E).
 Count the total number of points of 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length.
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 2A 
For Reindeer and Caribou. Rank on the length of the longest antler.
 Measure the length of each antler on the outside curve from the lowest edge of the burr (coronet) to the tip of the longest beam of the crown (AB). The tape must not be pressed into the groove above the coronet.
 Measure the circumference of the burr of each antler (C).
 Measure the circumference of each antler at the smallest place between the second and third tines (D).
 Measure the circumference of the upper palm of each antler at its largest place (E).
 Measure the widest inside span of the antler beams at right angles to the long axis of the skull (F).
 Count the total number of points of 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length.
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 3 
For Fallow Deer. Rank on the length of the longest antler.
 Measure the length of each antler on the outside curve from the lowest edge of the burr (coronet) to the tip of the main beam (AB). Follow a natural curve near the centre of the palm. The tape must not be pressed into the groove above the coronet.
 Measure the circumference of each antler at the smallest point between the brow and second tine (C).
 Measure the length of each palm along the outer curve from the point where the palm broadens to the furthest indentation between protuberances (D).
 Measure the width of each palm along the outer curve at the widest place between protuberances, the measurement being taken at right angles to the axis of the palm (E).
 Measure the widest inside span of the antler beams at right angles to the long axis of the skull (F).
 Count the number of points of 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length.
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 4 
For palmated Moose and Giant Deer. Rank on the greatest spread of the antlers.
 Measure the greatest spread of the antlers in a straight line at right angles to the axis of the skull (XY).
 Measure the circumference of each main antler beam at the smallest point (C).
 Measure the length of each palm along the outer curve from the highest point on the upper edge to the lowest point on the lower edge (D).
 Measure the width of each palm along the outer curve at the widest place between protuberances, the measurement being taken along the axis of the palm (E).
 Count the number of points 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length.
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 4A 
For unpalmated Moose. Rank on the greatest spread of the antlers.
 Measure the greatest spread of the antlers in a straight line at right angles to the axis of the skull (XY).
 Measure the circumference of each main antler beam at the smallest point (C).
 Measure the length of each antler on the outside curve from the lowest edge of the burr (coronet) to the tip of the main beam (AB). The tape must not be pressed into the groove above the coronet.
 Measure the length of each tine and record the total length of all tines.
 Count the number of points 1 inch (or 2.5 cm) or more in length.
 Weigh the dry rack attached to the skull, however without lower jaw (cut skulls will be considered as full skulls).


Method 5 
For Pigs, Hippopotami and Peccaries. Rank on the length of the longest tusk.
 Measure the length of the two longest tusks on the outer curve from the portion inside the gum to the tip (AB). Do not card off.
 Measure the circumference of each of the longest tusks at the largest place at right angles to the axis of the tusk (C).


Method 6 
For Babirusa, Walrus, Water Deer, Musk Deer, Chevrotain. Rank on the length of the longest tusk.
 Measure the length of the upper tusks on the outer curve (this includes the portion in the gum) (AB).
 Measure the length of the upper tusks protruding from the gum (on the outer curve). N.B. Whilst the normal 30 day drying period applies for measurement 1, this is not the case with measurement 2 and a field measurement is acceptable.


Method 7 
For species with unbranched and uncurled horns: the majority of antelopes, Brocket and Pudu. Rank on the length of the longest horn.
 Measure the length of the each horn on the front curve (in the centre of the horn) from the lowest edge of the base to the tip (AB).
 Measure the circumference of the base of each horn, at right angles to the axis of the horn (C).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (DB).
N.B (i) In the case of the Chousingha or FourHorned Antelope, measurements should be recorded in the following sequence: Length of longest horn, rear; length of longest horn, fore; circumference of longest horn, rear; circumference of longest horn, fore; tip to tip, rear; tip to tip fore. (ii) The basal pads of the Reedbuck must NOT be included in the measurement unless they are unable to be removed from the horn.


Method 8 
For spiralhorned antelope Tragelaphus, Taurotragus and Addax and Blackbuck. Rank on the length of the longest horn.
 Measure the length of each horn around the spiral, keeping the tape on top of the spiral ridge, starting at the lowest point at the front of the base and proceeding to the tip (AB). Where the spiral ridge ends near the tip, proceed to the tip and do not continue to spiral.
 Measure the circumference of the base of each horn, at right angles to axis of the horn (C).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (DB).


Method 9 
For Pronghorn. Rank on the length of the longest horn.
 Measure the length of each horn along the outside surface of the horn, following the outer edge (AB). Viewing the horn from the side, this measurement starts at the bottom of the horn, at midpoint, and continues along the centerline (outer edge) of the horn to the tip.
 Measure the circumference of the base of each horn at right angles to the axis of the horn (C).
 Measure the length of the prong along the upper edge (D).


Method 10 
For European and Asian Wild Cattle. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Measure the length of each horn from the lowest point on the underside along the outside curve to the tip (AB).
 Measure the circumference of each horn at the base (C), the first quarter (D), the second quarter (E) and the third quarter (F). These measurements are to be made at right angles to the axis of the horn.
 Measure the greatest spread of the horns (XY).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (BG).


Method 10A 
For Muskox. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Measure the length of each horn from the centre of the boss to the tip following along the centre of the horn surface (AB).
 Measure boss of each horn at the greatest width with callipers (C).
 Measure the greatest spread of the horns (XY).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (BG).


Method 12 
For African Buffalo and Brindled Gnu or Wildebeest. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Establish the outer limits of the horns using two rightangled forms. Measure the greatest spread in a straight line between the perpendiculars, at right angles to the axis of the horns (XY).
 Measure the boss of each horn at the greatest width with callipers (C).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (GB).


Method 13 
For Black Wildebeest (Whitetailed Gnu). Rank on the length of the longest horn.
Use a carpenter’s square to determine the right angle (CDE). The line (DE) is parallel to the centre line of the skull and will touch the boss (vertical). The line (DE) is at right angles to the axis of the skull and will touch the lowest point of the boss (horizontal).
 Bisect the angle (CDE) at 45° in the direction of (F). The point where this line meets the boss (A) is the starting point for the length of each horn. Follow the grain of the horn over the ridge of the boss and then start to incline to the front of the horn, around the lowest point and up the front to the tip (AB).
 Measure the width of each boss beginning where the horn meets the skull in front and going over the highest point of the boss to end where the horn meets the skull at the back (H). This is NOT circumference measurement.
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (GB).


Method 14 
For all Wild Sheep, Aoudad, Bharal. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Measure the length of each horn from the lowest point in front to the tip (AB). Many sheep horns are longitudinally ridged; begin the measurement in the front of the horn (approximately above the eye), where the ridge meets the skull, and follow the ridge throughout the curve of the horn to the tip.
 Measure the circumference of each horn at the base (C), the first quarter (D), the second quarter (E) and the third quarter (F). These measurements are to be made at right angles to the axis of the horn.
 Measure the greatest outside spread (XY).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (BG).


Method 14A 
For Ibex, Wild Goats, Tur, Chamois, Goral, Serow and Rocky Mountain Goat. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Measure the length of each horn from the lowest point in front (approximately above the eye) to the tip (AB).
 Measure the circumference of each horn at the base (C) at right angles to the axis of the horn.
 Measure the greatest outside spread (XY).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (GB).


Method 14B 
For Markhor. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Measure the length of each horn around the spiral, keeping the tape on top of the spiral ridge, starting at the lowest point at the front of the base and proceeding to the tip (AB). Where the spiral ridge ends near the tip, proceed to the tip and do not continue to spiral.
 Measure the circumference of each horn at the base (C) at right angles to the axis of the horn.
 Measure the greatest outside spread (XY).
 Measure the spread, tip to tip (BG).


Method 15 
For Rhinoceros. Rank on the length of the longest horn.
 Measure the length on the front curve of each horn from the base to the tip (AB).
 Measure the circumference around the base of each horn (C).


Method 16 
For Elephant Tusks. Rank on the weight of the heaviest tusk.
 When ivory is weighed in pounds, it should be recorded to the nearest pound. Weights falling at or above the halfpound mark being recorded at the next highest pound, weights falling below the halfpound mark being recorded at the next lowest pound. When weighing in kilogrammes, weigh each tusk to the nearest half kilogramme. Weights falling at or above the quarter kilo mark will be recorded at the next highest half kilo, weights falling below the quarter kilo will be recorded at the next lowest kilo. Weights falling on or above the three quarter kilo mark will be recorded at the next highest kilo, weights falling below the three quarter kilo will be recorded at the next lowest half kilo. Note that the weight of each tusk is to be recorded. Record the length on the outside curve of each tusk and the greatest circumference of each tusk, both measured to the nearest quarter inch (or centimetre).


Method 17 
For the skulls of carnivores, measure to 1/16 of an inch. Rank on the sum of measurements 1 and 2.
 Establish the outer limits of the length of the skull using callipers or two rightangled forms. Measure the distance between the callipers or the perpendiculars (AB).
 Establish the outer limits of the width of the skull using callipers or two rightangled forms. Measure the distance between the callipers or the perpendiculars (XY).
 Add measurements 1 and 2 above to establish the total sum.


Method 18 
For Crocodilians, measure to the nearest 1/4 inch (or centimetre)
This is a field measurement, taken before skinning, of the total body length including the length of the tail. Pull the nose and tail to get them into a straight line, then drive in pegs at the end of the nose and tail. Take the measurements between pegs and not by following the line of the body. Measurements should be taken to the nearest quarter inch (or centimetre). This measurement should be taken by a Professional Hunter or witness, certified by him and by the owner whose trophy has been measured, and the details including date, locality, etc., sent to Rowland Ward Publications. It should be noted that the Editors will accept measurements of fully mounted specimens using the above system as it has been established that there is very little longitudinal stretching of the skin involved in such cases. Length of raw, cured or tanned skins will not be accepted. 





 
